Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Glossary to Caste and Kinship in a Modern Hindu Society

My publisher forgot to include the glossary to my book, Caste and Kinship in a Modern Hindu Society: The Newar City of Lalitpur, Nepal (Bangkok: Orchid, 2013, available here) so here it is for anyone struggling their way through it.

Apart from English terms, all names and terms are transliterated from Newari, Nepali (Np.) or Sanskrit (Skt.).

ācārya (ācāḥ)—learned teacher
āgã chẽ—Tantric shrine
āgã dyaḥ—god that resides in āgã chẽ
agnate—patrilineal kin, a person that is related to ego through links with males alone
aĩta—sweet presented as part of ritual gift-giving
Aji—midwife; provides ritual service at Birth Purification
Ajimā (Hāriti)—malevolent goddess
Ashtamātrika—Eight Mother Goddesses
ashtami—Eighth day of lunar fortnight; important for Buddhists
avatār—‘avatar’; incarnation of Vishnu
aylaḥ—spirits, usually distilled from rice
bāhāḥ, bahi—Buddhist monastery
baigaḥ—uppermost storey of house
bājã—particular style of traditional music; music in general
baji—beaten rice, staple at feasts
Bāl Kumāri—one of the Eight Mother Goddesses
bali—sacrifice, usually animal
Banepa—small Newar town east of Bhaktapur
Bārāhi—lineage of Carpenters; one of the constituent thars of the Pengu Daḥ
Bhairava—blood-accepting, male deity; consort of the Devi
bhakta—devotee (usually in context of Vaishnavite sects)
Bhimsen (Bhindyaḥ)—blood-accepting, male deity beloved of traders
bhincā macā—sister’s son and his children
bhoto (Np.)—waistcoat or vest of Bῦgadyaḥ
bhujyaḥ—offering to Bῦgadyaḥ
bodhisattva—one who aims to become a fully enlightened Buddha
Brahman—a member of a particular lineage with links to the priesthood
brahman—the uppermost of the four ideal varna categories; priest
Bhaktapur—Newar city, east of Lalitpur
bhusyāḥ—large cymbals
bhut/pret—ghost, malevolent spirit
buddhamārgi—a follower of the path of Buddha; one who has a Vajrācārya domestic priest
Bῦgadyaḥ (coll.)—the god of Bῦga; Karunāmaya/Matsyendranāth
caḥre—the fourteenth day of the waning fortnight, especially sacred to the worship of Shiva.
caitya—votive Buddhist shrine; like a stupa but much smaller
Cākwāḥdyaḥ (a.k.a. Minnāth)—accompanies Bῦgadyaḥ on the Jātrā
Caturmāsa—period of four months of Vishnu’s sleep
cheli—ground floor of house
chwāsā—Remains Deity marked by an aniconic stone embedded in the ground
chwaylā bhu—pre-purification feast
cibhāḥ—(see caitya)
cusyāḥ—small cymbals, accompany naykhĩ
cwatã—second floor of house
dakshina—ritual fee
dabu—dance platform
daḥmā—the main forward beam of the chariot
dāmaru (dabu dabu)—small, one-handed double-headed drum
dān—inauspicious gift
dāphā—a genre of traditional Newar music
darshan—view of the deity; obeisance
dasa karma—Ten Life-Cycle Rituals (see samskāra)
Dashmahāvidya—Ten Great Knowledges; a set of female protective deities
dekhā—Tantric initiation
devi—goddess; refers to all goddesses or specifically to the great Goddess (the Devi)
Dewāli—season for Lineage Deity Worship
dhāḥ—two-headed drum, may be played with wooden stick
dharma—religious duty, law, custom, classically set out in sacred texts (dharmashastra); by extension, moral order more generally
dhimay—double headed drum, played with hand and curved cane stick; bigger than dhāḥ
dholi (Np.)—palanquin
digu dyaḥ—Lineage Deity
doti—traditional wrap-around loincloth
dyaḥ pālā—god guardian; caretaker of a temple
ekadasi—11th day of lunar fortnight; sacred to Vaishnavites
emic—the perspective of the insider (the opposite of etic)
galli—narrow lane
Ganesh (Ganedyaḥ)—elephant-headed god, Shiva’s first son and god of beginnings
ghaḥ—traditional Newar water pot
Ghaḥku—a lineage of Farmers who act as brakemen for the Bῦgadyaḥ and Cākwāḥdyaḥ chariots
ghāt—slope, typically adjacent to a river
ghyaḥ—clarified butter
Gubhāju (coll.)—Vajrācārya, Buddhist Priest
guthi (gu)—socio-religious association
guthiyār—member of a guthi
gway—areca (betel) nut
Haluwāi (coll.)—alternative thar appellation of Sweetmaker or more general referent of any sweetmaker
hiti—water spout
Holi—important spring festival
Indra—the Vedic king of the gods
ishtadevatā—chosen deity
—boiled rice
jāt/jāti—common term for group of intermarrying lineages, or caste
jātrā—processional festival; The Jātrā refers specifically to that of Bῦgadyaḥ
jhyāli—small cymbals
Jyāpu (coll.)—Maharjan, Farmer
kacha—raw food
kāshyap (kāshi)-gotra—of Aryan (Indic) ancestry
Kasāḥ (coll.)—Mulmi/Nyāchyã Shresthas, Bronzesmiths
kaḥsi—roof terrace
kalasha—Flask used for sacred purposes
Karamjit—Mahābrāhman death specialists
Karmācārya (Acāḥju)—Tantric priest
kartal—two-piece, one-handed percussion instrument
Karunāmaya—name of bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara (see Bῦgadyaḥ)
Kāstakār—Carpenter (alt. to Sthāpit)
Kathmandu—capital city of Nepal; one of three cities of medieval Nepal Valley
Kãwã—skeletal demon
Khadgi (Nay)—Butcher
Khwapa (coll.)—Bhaktapur
khya—the goblin with the lolling red tongue
Krishna—incarnation of Vishnu
kshatriya—second of ideal varna categories; warriors and kings
kuladevatā (Np.)—Lineage Deity (see digu dyaḥ)
Kumāri—Mother Goddess; also virgin goddess in Newar societies
Kwenādyaḥ (coll.)—Jala Vināyak; one of the four important forms of Ganesh in the Valley
lakh—one hundred thousand
lākha mari—sweet presented as part of ritual gift-giving
Lakshmi—goddess of good fortune; Vishnu’s principle wife
Lalitpur—city of Nepal (Kathmandu) Valley south of Bāgmati River; home of Pengu Daḥ
laptyā bhway—traditional Newar leaf-plate feast
laskus—ritual welcome at the door of house or gate of city
lhāsā-gotra—of Tibetan (Bodic) ancestry
Licchavi—ancient rulers of Nepal Valley
linga—phallic representation of Shiva
Lwahãkaḥmi (coll.)—Stonemason; one of the constituent thars of the Pengu Daḥ
magaḥ khĩ (Np. mādal)—small two headed drum Mahādyaḥ (Shiva)
Mahālakshmi—Mother Goddess
Malla—rulers of medieval Nepal
mānā—volumetric measure of ten handfuls or about a litre
Mānandhar—Oil Presser
mandala (mandap)—sacred diagram or platform
Marikaḥmi (coll.)—Sweetmaker; one of the constituent thars of the Pengu Daḥ
mashān—cremation ground
mātã—first floor of a house
melā—grand festival
mhyāy macā—daughter and her children
Mohani (Dashaĩ)—the most important festival of the autumn season
mridanga (Skt.; Nw. pacimā)—two-headed drum
mudrā—ritual position of the hands
muhāli—shawm (medieval-style oboe)
Mulmi/Nyāchyã Shresthas—Bronzesmiths
murti—image or form of deity
nāga—serpent deity
Nakaḥmi—(Newar) Blacksmith
nakhaḥtyā—feast associated with a nakhaḥ
Narasimha—‘man-lion’ incarnation of Vishnu
Nārāyana—alternative name of Vishnu; common form in Nepal
Nāpit (Nau)—Barber
Nauni—Barber’s wife
naykhĩ—double-headed drum, like dhāḥ but smaller; usually played by Butchers (Nay)
nitya pujā—daily worship
Nyāchyã—(see Mulmi)
Panauti—small Newar town in Banepa Valley
pāju—mother’s brother
Pānju—priest of Bῦgadyaḥ
Parbatiyā—Nepalese of the hills
pāthi—volumetric measure equivalent to eight mānās
Pengu Daḥ— ‘The Four Groups’; the focus of this study
phālca—public shelter
phuki—patrilineal relative
pikhā lakhu—carved stone that marks the ritual entrance to the house; Kumar
pitha (pigandyaḥ)—Power-Place
pradakshinapātha (Skt.)—procession route
Prahlāda—son of Hiranyakashipu; devotee of Vishnu
prākrit—natural, aniconic stone image
Pramānas—medieval, de-facto rulers of Lalitpur
prasād—‘grace’; sanctified food, flowers and sinha distributed to worshippers in return for pujā
pujā—worship, usually comprising offerings of fruit, flowers, vermilion, and sweets
pujāri—temple priest
pukka—food that has been made acceptable to eat; well cooked; more generally, solid
purohit—domestic priest
punhi—full moon, auspicious day especially for Buddhists
pwanga—short horn
Rādhā—Krishna’s lover
Rājbhandāri—Royal Storekeeper, member of dominant caste
Rājopādhyāya—Newar Brahman caste
Rājkarnikār (Marikaḥmi)—Sweetmaker
Rām (Rāma)—avatar of Vishnu
Rana—rulers of Nepal from 1847-1951
sadhu (see sannyasin)—ascetic renouncer
sagã—good luck food; two varieties-egg (khẽy) and fish (nyā)
sāit—auspicious time
samay baji—feast-like meal consumed after special pujā
Samgha—Buddhist Monastic Community
samskāra—life-cycle rituals
Sankhu—small town north of Bhaktapur
sãnhu (sãlhu)—first day of solar month
sannyasin—ascetic renouncer
Sarasvati—goddess of learning, Brahma’s wife
Shaivite—of, or pertaining to, Shiva; worshipper of Shiva
Shah—present dynasty of Nepal kings; descendants of Prithvi Narayan Shah
Shākya (Bare)—Goldsmiths; also workers of silver and brass; shopkeepers; of one caste with Vajrācāryas
Shilākār (Lwahãkaḥmi)—Stonemason; alt. thar appellation for Shilpakār
Shilpakār (Lwahãkaḥmi or Sikaḥmi)—Sculptor
shivamārgi—a follower of the path of Shiva; one who has a Brahman priest
shudra—fourth of ideal varna categories; servants, slaves, labourers
Sikaḥmi (coll.)—Carpenter; one of the constituent thars of the Pengu Daḥ
sinha—mark of vermilion on forehead
shakti—divine power, personified as feminine
shawm—medieval-style oboe
shrāddha—Ancestor Worship
Shrestha—dominant Newar caste; proper thar name of some of these
sikāḥ bhu—meal involving ritual division of head of sacrificial animal
sinājyā myẽ—rice transplantation song
snāna—ritual bathing
soḥra shrāddha—Sixteen [Day] Ancestor Worship
Sthāpit (Sikaḥmi)—Carpenter
stupa (thur)—sacred mound
Swanti (Np. Tihār)—important late-autumnal festival
syāḥ phuki—close or ‘bone marrow’ kin
taksāri—chief of royal mint
Taleju—chosen deity of Malla kings; blood-accepting female deity
Tamvaḥ (coll.)—Coppersmith; one of the constituent thars of the Pengu Daḥ
Tāmrakār (Tamvaḥ)—Coppersmith
tāpā phuki—distant kin
thaḥ chẽ—natal home of married woman
thākāli—senior male; elder
thākāli luyegu—initiation as a thākāli
thākāli nakĩ—senior married female
thāy bhu—ceremonial dish used at a Marriage or Mock Marriage celebration
Theravāda Buddhism—form of Buddhism found in Sri Lanka and more recently brought to Nepal
thon—homebrewed beer
thyasaphu—biographical entry on a legal document
trope—a word or expression used in a figurative sense
Tulādhar—principle thar of merchant caste in Kathmandu
tulasi—sacred basil plant; worshipped as Vishnu throughout Caturmāsa
twaḥ (Np. tol)—traditional locality
Urāy (coll.)—Tulādhar et al.
utsāva (Skt.)—festival
vaikuntha—Vishnu’s abode
Vaishnava (Vaishnavite)—of or pertaining to Vishnu; worshipper of Vishnu
vaishya—third of ideal varna categories; traders
Vajrācārya—Buddhist Priest
Vārāha—the boar-avatar of Vishnu
varna—‘colour’; system of castes in sacred texts; ideal caste structure
vermilion—mercuric sulphide; a bright red to reddish-orange coloured powder; mixed with curd, and husked rice it is applied with the finger to the image of the deity and thence to the worshipper’s forehead as prasād
Vishvakarma—patron deity of artisans
vrata—Observance including fasting usually in devotion toward a particular deity
waḥ—lentil cake
wala pala or wala pā—sub-section of guthi
yaḥ mari—special rice cake especially consumed at winter solstice festival
yaḥsĩ—ceremonial pole
yajña (homa)—Fire Sacrifice
Yama (Yamadyaḥ, Yamarāja)—the god of the abode of the dead
Yāngwa—a lineage of Farmers who lash the chariot together with vines
Yẽnyaḥ (Indra Jātrā)—important late-monsoon festival

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